Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Title: Global Consumption Trend of Antifungal Agents in Humans From 2008 to 2018: Data From 65 Middle- and High-Income Countries.
Author: Pathadka, S.
Yan, V.
Neoh, C.
Al-Badriyeh, D.
Kong, David C. M.
Slavin, M.
Cowling, B.
Hung, I.
Wong, I.
Chan, E.
Issue Date: 2022
Publication Title: Drugs
Volume: 82
Issue: 11
Start Page: 1193
End Page: 1205
Abstract: Background Understanding the trend of global antifungal agent consumption could assist with identification of global healthcare policy inadequacies and promote accessibility and availability of antifungal agents. Methods Using pharmaceutical sales data from the IQVIA-multinational integrated data analysis system database, we assessed use of systemic antifungal agents in humans in 27 middle- and 38 high-income countries from 2008 through 2018. Results Consumption of systemic antifungal agents increased from 0.50 (in 2008) to 0.92 defined daily dose (DDD)/1000 inhabitants/day (in 2018), with a compound annual growth rate of 6.2%. High-income countries remain major consumers of antifungal agents with large variance in quantities consumed, with a gradual decline in consumption in recent years. Consumption in middle-income countries increased. Itraconazole (0.32 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day), terbinafine (0.30 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day), and fluconazole (0.23 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day) were the most commonly used antifungal agents in middle- and high-income countries in 2018. Following incorporation into the World Health Organization Essential Medicines List, itraconazole consumption in middle-income countries surged. Consumption of ketoconazole slowly declined, with 5.04% annual decrease, probably due to labelling changes in 2013 to reflect hepatotoxicity concerns. The use of polyenes (0.004 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day) and echinocandins (0.003 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day) were lowest among all the antifungal drug classes. Conclusion Global consumption of triazoles and terbinafine has gradually increased in middle- and high-income countries. Life-saving antifungal agents, including echinocandins and polyenes, are available only parenterally and may be underutilized, mainly in middle-income countries. Future research on country-specific epidemiology is warranted to guide health policy coordination to ensure equitable access to appropriate use of antifungal agents.
Internal ID Number: 01967
Type: Journal Article
Appears in Collections:Research Output

Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.